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Full text of "Annotated bibliography on Aphelinus mali (Hald.), a parasite of the woolly apple aphid, 1851-1950"

LIBRARY 

August 1953 E-861 



AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON APHELINUS MALI (HALD.), 
A PARASITE OF THE WOOLLY APPLE APHID 

1851-1950 



Compiled by 
M. A. Yothers, Division of Fruit Insect Investigations 



United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Administration 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/annbibhalOOmayo 



AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON APHELINUS MALI (HALD.), 
A PARASITE OF THE WOOLLY APPLE APHID 

1851-1950 

/ Compiled by 
M. A. Yothers,— Division of Fruit Insect Investigations 



The woolly apple aphid ( Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.)) is one of the 
most important enemies of the apple. It attacks the foliage, twigs, fruit, 
roots, and any wounds on the tree. Many control methods have been 
tried, including spraying, dusting, dipping, fumigation, the development 
of resistant rootstocks, and natural control by predators and parasites. 
The hymenopterous parasite Aphelinus mali (Hald.) is a highly effective 
parasite of the woolly apple aphid. Its use for the control of this pest 
has been significant in Oregon and Washington, where it was found to be 
largely responsible for the development of perennial apple canker 
( Gloeosporium perennans (Zeller and Childs)). The introduction and 
establishment of the parasite in these districts reduced both aphid and 
canker to a minimum. 

Aphelinus mali is one of the most effective insect parasites. It is a 
native of North America, having been first described by Haldermann (1) 
in 1851. Since that time, but particularly during the period 1920-40, 
this parasite has been studied and introduced into most of the apple- 
growing regions of the world. In most of them it is giving more or less 
control of the woolly apple aphid, and considerable literature has grown 
up relating to it. This bibliography covers the literature from 1851 
through 1950. 

Most of the references were taken from the Review of Applied Ento- 
mology, Series A. A few were obtained from "A Biological Study of 
Aphelinus mali Hald., a Parasite of the Woolly Apple Aphid, Eriosoma 
lanigerum Hausm." Lundie (70); " Aphelinus mali and Its Travels" 
Howard (129); and from the bibliographies in other articles. 



_l/ Retired June 30, 1949. The compiler acknowledges much helpful 
cooperation from E. J. Newcomer of the Division of Fruit Insect Investi- 
gations, without which the work would not have been completed. 



1851 
H a 1 e m a nn, S . S . ( 1 ) 

► No. 4. Pa. Farm 

hilus mali (origin 

ire), 

1859 
H tin, S. S. (2) 

(Aphelinus mali ) Boston So . N I. H. \ Proc. 6: 402-403. 

Des rinted from Haldemann (J_) without figu 

1881 
•ard, L. O. (3) 

Report on the parasites of the Coccidae in the collection of th 
Depa t. U. S. Commr. . 1880: 350-37 

Aphelinus mali , p. 356. Included here as the only knov. *h 

American n r of the tribe Aphelinina not known to be par 

sitic upon a member of this family (Coccidae). Calls attention to 

the fact that Kriophilus is a synonym of Aphelinus. 

1893 
Webster, F. M. 

Notes on some species of Ohio H optera and Diptera hereto- 

fore undescribed. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Ser, Bui. 1(3): 
. -158. 

Biological notes on Aphelinus mali. Tin ;s report' 

having heretofore been unknov 

1895 
:, I.. O. 

Revision ol the Aphelininae of North Amei U. S. 

B .1. 1: 1 - - 

i;. :ir.s Aphelinus n,.th ■■. 

Including S meura laniger , 



-3- 



1896 
Stedman, J. M. (6) 

The woolly -aphid of the apple or the apple-root plant-louse 
( Schizoneura lanigera (Hausm.)). Mo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 
35: 36-61. 

A minute chalcid fly, Aphelinus mali , is parasitic on the woolly 
apple aphid and could, in sufficient numbers, greatly diminish the 
numbers of aphids, but no case has been observed where this has 
actually happened. The fly is so small that it will escape the 
notice of the ordinary observer. 

1908 
Gillette, C. P. (7) 

Notes and descriptions of some orchard plant lice of the family 
Aphididae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1: 302-310. 

"We have reared no parasite from it, but on Aug. 21, 1908, 
L. C. Bragg brought into my office a female Aphelinus mali 
(det. by L. O. Howard) busily ovipositing in apterous females 
of this louse ( Eriosoma lanigerum )." 

and Taylor, E. P. (8) 



A few orchard plant lice. Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 133: 13, 
26, and 37. 

Aphelinus mali discussed. 

Howard, L. O. (9) 

Upon the aphis-feeding species of Aphelinus. Ent. News 19: 
365-367. 

Contains a table of the species, including mali . 

Smith, H. S. (10) 

Aphis injurious in Nebraska during 1906-1907. Nebr. State Bd. 
Agr. Ann. Rpt. : 307-326. 

Aphelinus mali, page 322. 






1909 



us 

■ iO. 

Pal >n woolh ind other plant lice. 

• . "■ . * . 
A hid genus Aphelir. D a, pa: 

sitic on S' ■hi/.o: • rataegj Oestlund. P tie 16: 29-31. 

-.cribe A :•.'..: . -. • i . . sp.)par ji. S. • ■ 

Probably a synonym foi A 

Silve , F. (13) 

Remarks on the present condition of agricultural entomoh '.he 

I MtL-d States of North An.' and what Italian agricui - 

UarnTJ Soc. degli Agr. Ital. Bol. 14(8): 305. J~ [1 di _ 

(English translation in Hawaii. Forester and Agr., Aug. 1909: 
287-336.) 

1911 
Lohrenz, H. V 

The woolly aphiSj S< hizom ur i lanigera . 

al natural enemies v. >und t< id. One of 

flies killed off large colonies in the s; 
while it was almost impossible to id in " 

ise th< had been Int 

m the nurseries. Aphrlinus mal i .nd in the s 

11. 

P • '., 1 \1. 

E ' curl iphid. M 

l 

tes Gillette (8) oi 

Wi "• . . I Phillips, u . J. 

The spring grain- U. S. 

no, ; 

Reports the paras it< 



- 5 - 



1913 
Patch, Edith M. (17) 

Woolly aphid of the apple ( Schizoneura lanigera ). Maine Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Bui. 217: 179^ 

Two days quest in the vicinity of Orono early in September 1913 
failed to locate a single woolly apple aphid colony which was not 
well-nigh demolished by Aphelinus mali . 

1914 
Slingerland, M. V., and Crosby, C. R. (18) 

Manual oi fruit insects. 503 pp. Macmillan. New York. 

Aphelinus mali , p. 157. 

1916 
Patch, Edith M. (19) 

Elm leaf rosette and woolly aphid of the apple. Maine Agr. Expt. 
Sta. Bui. 256: 336. 

A revision of Bui. 217 (17). 

1918 
Becker, Geo. G. (20) 

The apple woolly aphis, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. Ark. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Bui. 154: 11. 

Aphelinus mali caused a high mortality of woolly apple aphids. 

1920 
Anonymous (21) 

La lucha contra el pulgon del manzano. /UruguayJ Defensa 
Agr. Bol. Mens. 9: 207-208. 

Preparatory measures are discussed for importing Aphelinus 
mali into Uruguay, where the woolly apple aphid is a dangerous 
pest to fruit trees. 

Schurmann, G. B. (22) 

Informe acerca del Aphelinus mali, parasito que ataca al pulgon 
lanigero. Montevideo Min. Indus. Rev. 8(52): 149-153. 

The author concludes that the benefit from A_. mali in North 
America and France is exaggerated and variable. He hopes to 
introduce it into Uruguay. 






is (23) 

Di • • '. , N .ember 1920: entomol : . So. 

A > . ■ . . Jour. 2(1): 14 

":'.'..: . ■_ li .: • South Africa fro th 

America is discuss* 





Departmental activities: entomolog; . :'rica Dept. Agr. 

Jour. 2(2): 109-113. 

B> res that the introduction of Aphelinus mali from th :ed 

tes will become established. 



- 



i\ activities: entomology. So. Dept \gr. Jou- . 

(3): 204-206. 



Thesuccess of Aphelinus mali is discussed. 






. ities: entomology. So. * Dept. 

Jour. 2(A): 301-306. 

The establishment of the parasite Aphelir/.- n . 1 i of the 
apple aphid rec i t check, owing to the aphid almost dying out 

in l- .th its reappearance in March, h 

•• found in numbers. 






\) Logy, .So, 

I), pt. . : . Jo ir. 3(4): 306-31 . 

i i ■ iblishment of Aphelinus mali '' '. ed. 

It . sible that Its work Ls hi] I by th< 

. • i . 

I . 

La difu lei Aphelinus mali. _ _ : 

M( l: 121. 

A. mali Inl ed Into Uruj 






1921 
Anonymous (29) 

El enemigo del pulgon del manzano. Travajos para su aclimatacion. 
/Uruguay/ Defensa Agr. Bol. Mens. 2(2): 39-41. 

All the specimens of Eriosoma lanigerum imported from the 
United States were dead upon arrival, but from this material 
some living hymenopterous parasites, believed to be Aphelinus 
mali , have been obtained. 

(30) 



Laboratoire de phytopathologie. Soc. Soi. Nat. du Maroc. 1(1): 
22-27. 

The woolly apple aphid in Morroco is not sufficiently abundant 
to justify the introduction of Aphelinus mali. 



(31) 



Rapports sommaires sur les travaux accomplis dans les 
laboratoires et comptes rendus des missions d'etudes. 
Ann. des Epiphyt. 7(1919-20): 421-441. 

Aphelinus mali introduced against Eriosoma lanigerum . 

Hitier, H. (32) 

Un parasite du puceron lanigere. Jour. d'Agr. Prat. 36(30): 101. 

Attention has been directed for some time toward finding a 
parasite of E. lanigerum , which is so destructive to apple trees 
in France. Aphelinus mali has been introduced in small numbers 
from America, and has been very carefully propagated in special 
cages at various entomological stations. Results have been en- 
couraging. Too much must not be expected, however, as the 
multiplication of the parasite in spring is slower than that of E. 
lanigerum ; later in the season its activities may be of great 
benefit. 

Marchal, P. (33) 

Introduction en France de 1 Aphelinus mali Haldemann, parasite 
du puceron lanigere. Rev. de Zool. Agr. et Appl. 20(7): 65-70. 

A. mali , the chalcid parasite of Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. , 
has been imported from America and successfully established 
in various districts in France. Its general distribution over the 
country is considered only a matter of time. Under natural con- 
ditions hibernation occurs in the larval or pupal stage within the 
host larva. During 1921 the first adults emerged toward the end 
of March. 



oci'-cq n 



-8- 



, P. 

I Hald. into ] rt. 

/ * i " ( ■) • — 

A I iction of this parasite of the woolly 

id into I -ining in the spring of 19 





Inti of the woolly apple aphis parasite Aphelinus mail 

li A <f / . nee Com pt, -id. 

7(28): 619 

Ai count of the introduction of this parasite fror - ed 

States and its establishment in Frani 

Foex, E. (36) 



irt phyi ologique pour les annees 1919-1920. Ann. des 

Epiph\ t. 7: 1 -lxxxvn. 

Er . ianigerum was very abundant in the spring of 1920 

in man} , but finally almost disappeared, owing to tfa 

tivities of its er Further introductions of A. • • . .- 

mali as a means of controlling this pest are to be ma : • . 

Sundberg, K., and Peluff. , A. T. 

La m I . para comba' 

pulgon del manzai s obsei __ alizadas 

La lei Lns< iiuciliar. . . •_ D . Bol. 

Mens. 2i II. 

Reporl lata on tl 

Til; k. .i. (38) 

wool! I. D< 

(1): • 

, New Zeal. R 



-9 - 



1921 

males and 2 females that survived were placed on an apple tree 
and increased to at least 142 individuals by the end of summer. 
Emergence was noticeably affected by sudden drops in tempera- 
ture. It is planned to stock the whole of New Zealand within 
2 years, if winter mortality is not too heavy and if satisfactory 
methods of handling are developed. 

Trouvelot, B. (39) 

Observations biologiques sur 1 Habrobracon johansenni Vier. 
Soc. de Biol. ^Paris/ Compt. Rend. 85(35): 1022-1024. 

The adult H. johansenni pierces the body of the larva of the 
potato tuber moth, Gnorimoschema operculella (Zell.^and sucks 
the juice that exudes from the puncture, as does Aphelinus mali 
when attacking Eriosoma lanigerum . 

1922 

Anonymous (40) 

Departmental activities: entomology. So. Africa Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 4(2): 114-117. 

Aphelinus mali still surviving near Pretoria and Ventersdorp 
but will probably not prove of much importance, owing to the 
unfavorable climate. 

(41) 



Departmental activities: entomology. So. Africa Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 4(4): 300-304. 

Aphelinus mali increased in Pretoria in midsummer. Can be 
introduced by transferring a few twigs, but this method may 
spread the San Jose scale. 



Departmental activities: entomology. So. Africa Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 4(5): 399-401. 

Aphelinus mali is apparently established near Pretoria and it 
is hoped that its introduction into Natal will be successful. 



(42) 



10 



J. (43) 

Inst. Biol. Soc, 

2: 40-43. 

Aphelinus mail promises to \ . successful against tl 

pple aphid. 

H : E A. 

bionomics of Aphelinus semiflavus (Howard) c halcid para- 
site of aphids. Ohio Jour. S< i. 22(8): 20'- . 

"Aphelinus mali was long considered an exception (as a para- 
site of aphids only) appearing m . :nes in records as a scale 
site, t Dr. Howard now believes this to be an error, and 
considers that it is prob.. j'hids, and perhaps o: 
to the woolly forms, especially Eriosoma I .:... • r WD H B U 

M itUS, M. 1). 

Kl pulgon de los manzanos ( Schizoneura H . isil . . Su 

destruccion por m dio de la lucha bio! * i con el Aphelinus 
mali (Hald.). Experim< ones realizades por el ins*.." 

Logico de la rural Argentin . Soc. R PaJ 

Argentina An. : 720-723; Gac. Rural /j Ores 

16( 185): •; 7. 

Th< • iblishment of A. n.ali into Argentina 4. 

Tillyard, R. J-. 

igress of the work of breeding and distribute i helinus 

mail . Z I ::.'• D 

Trees v. 

lanijjc: ■ 

left unsj rayed. Neai 

i s from the 

( n. 

rrujillo Peluffo, A. . _ _ 

I Aphelinus mail . Su _ . 

A jr. Bol. Men . 1(8): L 14-11 

lion Lnl 

I 
nt to A l I I, I ta ly , 






- 11 



1922 



Wille, J. (48) 

Die biologische Bekampfung der Blutlaus in Uruguay. 

Nachrichtenbl. f. den Deut. Pflanzenschutzdienst 2(2): 10-11. 

Discusses the introduction of Aphelinus mali into Uruguay to 
control Eriosoma lanigerum . 

1923 
Anonymous (49) 

Report on the work of the entomological stations of Paris and the 
south of France for the year 1922. Ann. des Epiphyt. 9(6): 
443-463. 



Aphelinus mali was reared at the Mentone station. 



Departmental activities: entomology. So. Africa Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 6(4): 288-290. 

In February a high percentage of the woolly apple aphid was 
attacked by the recently introduced Aphelinus mali. 



(50) 



(51) 



La defensa agricola en el extranjero. Exito de los envios de 
insectos auxilares. /Urugua^/ Defensa Agr. Bol. Mens. 4 
(5-6): 57-58. 

Aphelinus mali was established in Uruguay. Shipments were 
sent to- Italy and Germany. 

Brtthes, J. (52) 

Seccion entomologia. Inst. Biol. Soc. Rural Argentina, Mem. 
Mayo 1922-23: 37-44 

Aphelinus mali introduced from Uruguay for the control of the 
woolly apple aphid has surpassed expectation. 

Crouse, F. L. (53) 

La accion del Aphelinus mali en Chile. [Vrugua^J Defensa Agr. 
Bol. Mens. 4(7-8): 79. 

Excellent results have been obtained in Chile with A. mali , 
imported from Uruguay against the woolly apple aphid. 



- 12 



12 
Guercio, Giacomo (54) 

e e diffusion* all 

H .:.).: i per la distruz . 

R. S . Toscana di O . Bui. 48(5-8): 17- 

•ion of A. m a 1 1 into Italy frOO e 

in September 1921 and subsequ* tly. 

Guignon, .1. H. 

if A. ru linus mail parasite du puc< 

Hausm.V Rev. d' Hist. Nat, A;.:-:., [e 7-71 

A. mali, a parasite of Eriosom. • rum, has recently been 

Liberated in the Seine and Marne districts, where it is hoped 
will become established. 

Jarvis, H. (56) 

Fruit-fly investigations. Queensland Agr. Jour. 20(5): 369-3" 

Detailed account of the liberation of Apht-hnus : ■ ■. . . n • ed 
from New Zealand. 

Malenotti, E. 

Brevi note sull 7 Aphc-linus mali Hald. Reprint, 8 pp. fr 
Vincentina, (9), Vicenz . 

Aphelinus mali obtained from Prance and Uruj: b- 

lished itself in the neighborhood of V 

aphid ( Enosoma pyricoi. 

/ (58) 

Per una piii ra ffusioi e dell / 

II Contadim 

i). - isses the 

; • | id. 

Ma M. I). 

I . . ' 

Aphcliinis mal. 

Apples should be ■ \ on stocks resisl 

i\ the 

:'ul. 



- 13 



1923 
Regnier, R. (60) 

De quelques grands ennemis du pommier et de leurs parasites. 
Rev. Appl. Bot. and Agr. Colon. 3(19): 169-185. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali into France. 

Riesle, P. R. . (61) 

El pulgon lanigero del manzano, su tratamiento y estudios hechos 
en Chile para combatirlo ( Eriosoma lanigera). Agronomia 13 
(2): 62*-67. 

Natural enemies, such as Aphelinus mali , which has been 
recently imported into Chile, and syrphid and Coccinellid larvae, 
are not checking the infestation of fruit trees by E. lanigerum , 
and recourse must be had to spraying. 

Tillyard, R. J. (62) 

The parasite of the woolly aphis in New Zealand. Progress of 
work of distributing Aphelinus mali during the season 1922-23. 
8 pp. s. 1. 

The introduction and establishment of A. mali in New Zealand 
is reported in detail. 

1924 
Anonymous (6 3) 

Entomologie. Trav. Soc. Agr. France Compt. Rend. 55: 157-159. 

Discusses the value of Aphelinus mali . 

Bolle, J. (64) 

Ein Feind der Blutlaus des Apfelbaumes. Ztschr. Angew. Ent. 
10(2): 463-465. 

Discusses the use of Aphelinus mali against Eriosoma lanigerum 
in Italy. 

French, C, Jr., and Pilloud, L. (65) 

Control of woolly aphis. Victoria Dept. Agr. Jour. 22(12): 725-727. 

Aphelinus mali has been introduced into Victoria from New 
Zealand. 



. 4 



1<V 

, W, E.H.j and Beaumont, A. (66) 

f 1 report - : Plant Patholo. he 

year ending Sept. 30, 1924. igr. Col. I 16, 

. 

Aphrlinus mail was released in Cornwall earl M , d 

parasitized (lusters of the w ipple aphid were found from the 

end of August at some distance frc i points of introduction. 

Jarvis, H. (67) 

Fruit fly investigation. Queensland Agr. Jour. 21(5): 382-385. 

Aphclinus mali is established in at least one orchard and a 



further supply is awaited. 



(68) 



Fruit fly investigation. Queensland Agr. Jour. 22(6): 435-438. 

Distribution of Aphelinus mali is being continued. 

Lounsburg, C. P. (69) 

Report of the Division of Entomology, 1923-24. So. Africa De; 
Agr. Jour. 9(6): 556-5' 

The introduction of Aphelinus mail from America has proved 
unsatisfactory, owing to prolonged drought and heat of ear 
summer. 

Lui die, A. E. 

A biological study of Aphehr. H •.., a parasite of th. i 

phid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. N.Y. {( 
<pt. St... M< m. 79 pp. 3-27. 

'1 he first c • hensh • ts 

life h . habil 

parthenoj s, numb< , 

bibliography 

•■ . I • 
►spaltella berlesel e Aphelinui *a 

I 

i '. . li. 



- 15 



1924 
Malenotti, E. (72) 

Un "araba fenice" a Lendinara. Coltivatore e Gior. Vinio. 
Ital. 70(28): 303-304. 

This paper refers to the "afelino del melo" and is referred to 
by Howard ( 129 ) p. 361. 

(73) 



Una migrazione dell 'afelino a 12 chilometri. Coltivatore e Gior. 
Vinio. Ital. 70(35): 518-520. 

The parasite was found 12 kilometers (7 miles) from a point 
of liberation. Considered this distribution largely a matter of 
wind spread. 

Meyer, R. (74) 

Die Einfuhrung des Blutlausparasiten Aphelinus mali Hald., in 
Deutschland. Nachrichtenbl. f. den Deut. Pflanzenschutzdienst 
4(2): 9. 

Reports the introduction of A. mali from Uruguay and its 
establishment in Germany. 

Newman, L. J. (75) 

Report of economic entomologist. West. Austral. Dept. Agr. 
Ann. Rpt., 1923-24: 20-24. 

Aphelinus mali reported as bred from the black orange aphid 
(Aphis tavaresi ). 

(76) 



Woolly aphis parasite, Aphelinus mali Hald. West Austral. Dept. 
Agr. Jour. 2 Ser. 1(1): 40-44. Leaflet 128, 6 pp. 

Records the successful introduction of A. mali into western 
Australia where the woolly apple aphid thrives particularly well 
in the southwest and southern apple country. 



(77) 



Woolly aphis parasite (Aphelinus mali ). West Austral. Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 1(4): 481-482. 

A. mali is introduced into various localities in New Zealand. 

2(56758 0—53 3 



K. 

56. 

It. J. 

■ 

•inued work with A. . ld 

! has 

192 

An' us 

of the t aological stations 
• \nn, des Epiphyt, 

•s the continuation of rt | distribution c: 
__|Ji against the woolly apple aphid. 



Del Ci 

lo stu. del 

SI). 

G 

A si. 









I ., (81) 

Insect pests of crops in Eng: ~~ H 

I 

Aphrlinus mali h 
pple aphid. 






■ 






- 17.- 



1925 
Jarvis, H. (84) 

Apple tree woolly aphis and its subjugation by Aphelinus mali Hald. 
Queensland Agr. Jour, 23, pt. 4: 314-316. 

A. mali introduced and established in Queensland with remark- 
able success. Parasite found 3 miles from point of liberation. It 
is hoped the parasite will also attack aphids on citrus and banana. 

(85) 



Fruit fly investigations. Queensland Agr. Jour. 23, pt. 3:185-187. 
Aphelinus mali used against the woolly apple aphid. 



(86) 



Fruit fly investigations. Queensland Agr. Jour. 24(1): 60-62. 

Overwintering of Aphelinus mali . 

Levick, G. T. (87) 

The woolly aphis parasite ( Aphelinus mali ). Victoria Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 23(3 & 6): 171-173, 363-366] 

Reports recent introduction and complete establishment in 
Victoria from New Zealand. Reviews the work in New Zealand. 

Makgill, R. H. (88) 

The pear-midge pest. Spraying experiments at Henderson. New 
Zeal. Dept. Agr. Jour. 30(4): 224-228. 

Spraying to control the woolly apple aphid rendered unnecessary 
by the introduction of Aphelinus mali . 

Morstatt, H. (89) 

Weitere Mitteilungen uber Aphelinus mali Hald. Anz. f. 
Schadlingsk. 1(9): 106-107. 

The same information given by Stenton (92). 

Nicholls, H. M. (90) 

Annual report of the government microbiologist. Tasmania Agr. 
and Stock Dept. Rpt. 1924-25, 4 pp. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali on apple twigs 
infested with Eriosoma lanigerum from western Australia and 
the rapid reduction of the aphid by the parasite. 



- 18 - 



192 

Scl , k., ind K ifmann, O. (91) 

ing des Blut] ••-.•■• Aphelinus mal :d.) nach 

!)<•■:• '1. ZtSChr. f. An^w. hi.".. '. !(.'•!): Vr,'< 

Reports the introduction of _A . mali ln1 G< I from Urugu 

S obs» : poss. 

:., K. 
[] •. n of a parasite of the woolly aphis. ^Gt. BritT 

: Fish< ries 32(4): 343-349. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali into England 
I mce in March 1923 and its establishment. 

Tillyard, H. J. 

Aphelinus mali. Distribution of the parasite of the v. aphis 

'•■ w Zealand during the season 1 
grower and Apiarist, June, 4 pp. K- : rint. 

'I he distribution of A. mali, :: V .'. Zealand has been con- 
tinued, and a record nun • r was sent to all parts of the Dominion. 
A. mali has been found at distances of 3 to 7 miles from the nearest 
Liberation point, and no doubt it is maintaining itself under norm 
orchard conditions and is extending its range ■ i host 

available. 

Trouvelot, 1 .. 

. es a suivre dans l' imp ' n pur ns de I* 

agriculture d' ins 
Zool. A tAppl. 24(6-7): 125-140, I L8. 

Dis< asses the acclimatization of Aphelinus mail . :it 

I , . 13 2). 

■ , N. 

V< •■ de Weil 

I) •. V- ■ n Meded. 1 

! ) 

Aphelinus n. a i . .. H 

Ins to be si • 



- 19 - 



1926 
Anonymous (96) 

Departmental activities: entomology. So. Africa Dept. Agr. 
Jour. 12(3): 195-201. 

Aphelinus mali is found abundantly in the Orange Free State, 
although it has never been introduced into this region. 

Blanchard, E. E. (97) 

Aphid notes. Part 6. Argentine species of the subtribes 

Callipterina, Pterochlorina, and Lachnina, and of the tribes 
Eriosomatini and Phemphigini. Physis 8(30): 324-337. 

The importance of Eriosoma lanigerum has been much reduced 
by the introduction of Aphelinus mali . 

Essig, E. O. (98) 

Insects of western North America. MacMillan Company, New 
York, 1,035 pp. 

Aphelinus mali (p. 828) occurs throughout the United States 
and ranges into the Southwestern States. Parasitic on 
Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Toxoptera graminum Rond., 
Macrosiphum rosae (L.), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.), 
Prociphilus fraxinifolii (Riley), and other Aphididae. 

Gurney, W. B. (99) 

The woolly aphis parasite (Aphelinus mali (Hald.)). Agr. Gaz. 
N. S. Wales 37(8): 620-626. 

A general account of the introduction of the parasite of Eriosoma 
lanigerum from New Zealand into Australia, together with the methods 
employed in the initial introduction, and a note of its life history. 

(100) 



Distribution of the parasite Aphelinus mali . Agr. Gaz. N. S. 
Wales 37(2): 162. 

Describes the distribution of approximately 16,000 live 
individuals of A. mali in New South Wales, with full instructions 
on methods of their release. 






■■■ 



little • 
introduce 

unspr , so that e built u; 

site t( . Primings of :ig dead, paras 

hids should be kept, to start fresh colonies 
the spring. 

nd Beaumont, I . 
Second annual report of th nt of Plant Patholog-. 

year ending September 30, 1925. Scale - 1. 

Pam. 19, pp. 

hclinus mali , introduced into an orchard in Cornwall 
persisted in 1925, but did not increase appreciably and failed to 
-ntrol the woolly apple aphid. 

rvis, H. 

.it fly and othei sts in the Stantho- 

Queenslanc i(l): 10-13. 

Aphelir.us mali h;. Ln some of the orchards 

lt v. igainst tl 

first adult- the wint- 

utilize this par . inst th< 

CJ_ Myzus sp.). 

>4) 
tr_^ j gerum in _ 

Chn- Szkodniki Roslin 1(1 . _ 

I 

I h< 



21 - 



1926 
Lounsbury, C. P. (105) 

^Report of the chief, Division of Entomology, 1925-26^ Farming 
' in So. Africa 1(9): 334-338. 

Reports the natural spread of Aphelinus mali , except in the 
Cape Peninsula, where climatic conditions seem to retard its 
establishment. The parasite is ineffective in spring, but may 
control the woolly apple aphid by midsummer and so check it in 
seasons and places where the heat has not killed the aphids 
naturally; 

Newman, L. J. (106) 

Aphelinus mali . West Austral. Dept. Agr. Jour. 3(4): 486-487. 

Reports the introduction of A. mali to control the black citrus 
aphid ( Siphonophora sp.) in western Australia. After the first 
year the outbreak of the aphid had entirely subsided and practically 
every aphid had been parasitized. From these trees many colonies 
were distributed elsewhere. (Howard considers this a wrong 
determination of the aphid.) 

Nonell Comas, Jaime (107) 

Estacidn de Patologia Vegetal de Barcelona. Bol. de Patol. 
Veg. y Ent. Agr. 1(3): 109-110. 

Aphelinus mali , introduced at Barcelona from Italy and 
Uruguay, was successfully established against the woolly apple 
aphid. 

Theobald, F. V. (108) 

Entomological department. Southeast. Agr. Col. Res. and Adv. 
Dept. Ann. Rpt. 1925-26: 5-22. 

Reports the introduction and establishment of colonies of 
Aphelinus mali . 

Tillyard, R. J. (109) 

The progress of economic entomology in Australia and New 
Zealand. New Zeal. Dept. Agr. Jour. 32(3-4): 173-181; 
236-242. 

Discusses the introduction and establishment of Aphelinus 
mali in New Zealand. 






I n ivelot. i . (1 10) 

I de T • pliqu» 

. S . :' I . Indus. 

< I 

n of natu "mies of co< . 

of Apht-Hnus :: .: . .. .: Bt the woolly apple aphi : 

Van Poeteren, N, (ill) 

slag over de Werkz in den Plantenziekter en 

Dienst h ( r 192 . Vers! M 1. Plantenziekt< - I. 

Dienst Vv u, L24 

Reports th* . ival of Aphrhnus mail through the winter of 

1924-25 in ether lands. 

Veiti n, K. (112) 

K'-port of the chief entomologist. Queensland De, - . -.nd 

Stock Ann. Rpt. 1925-26: 135-138. 

Reports much benefit fron 1 of the woolly apple 

phid by Aph'-linus mali . 

19. 
her, R. C. (113) 

Recent work U 1 • ; nce on the parasitic coi • f insects. Gard. 

Chron. 81(2089): 34-36. 

A brief ac< of the i ment of U 

s, in southe: : 1- • : I . S. 1 tui • .of Entomol 

for- the export of I ial Insects to the I .' : S1 R< rts 

th> essful establishing ah in s» 

i in [ta it it has nol U in tfa *h. 

i ! ■ : i : , \\ . E . 1 1 . . I , A . 

Third annual report of the Depart I 

g Septei • ■ : i ' Col. 1 

21 

. ■ • • ■ ^ 
' ■'• I • . Pai 

pai 



23 - 



1927 
Nonell Comas, Jaime (115) 

Estacion de Fitopatologia Agricola de Barcelona. Bol. de Patol. 
Veg. y Ent. Agr. 2(8-9): 168-170. 

Aphelinus mali was introduced at Barcelona from Italy and 
Uruguay in June 1926. The acclimatization and distribution has 
proceeded satisfactorily in Spain. 

Paoli, G. (116) 

Casi fitopatologici osservati in Liguria nella primavera-estate 
1927. /Ttal^7 R. Staz. Patol. Veg. Bol. 7(4): 382-387. 

Aphelinus mali , introduced into Liguria in 1923, has become 
acclimatized and is fairly effective in controlling the woolly 
apple aphid. 

Theobald, F. V. (117) 

Entomological department. Southeast. Agr. Col. Res. and Adv. 
Dept. Ann. Rpt. 1926-27: 16. 

Aphelinus mali does not appear to be of any value in Kent, 
where it has been released. 

Torres Ortiz, J. (118) 

Estudio biologico sobre el Aphelinus mali. Agronomia 17(3): 
106-108. 

A brief biological study. 

Veitch, R. 

Report of the chief entomologist. Queensland Dept. Agr. Rpt. 
1926-27: 69-73. 

Aphelinus mali continues to control the woolly apple aphid. 

Wahl, B. 

Der Pflanzenschutz in Oesterreich. Deut. Gesell. f. Angew. 
Ent. Verhandl. 6; Mitgliederversamml. : 67-78. 

The establishment of Aphelinus mali to control the woolly 
apple aphid has been attempted. 

2t«758 0—53 4 



(119) 



(120) 






192 8 

I 

n de 

ntrol in s ts of S 

itions of standard or.- 









H. 

asite du puceron 1 v eft 
A. Suisse 2 

An account i luction and establishment ol 

nd. Biological notes and method 

. 

■i-r, .1. C. i 

* on the o ren< f insecl : ,ests on crops in I 

27 « LL L Agr. Misc. 

■ ts furtht Lntrodu 

itish Is , .-, occurren e 

the parasit. 

• 

•'• ■ ( • 1 1 • . " . 

:" Plar. for 

• or< hard wha ■ 

" 

A: 



-25 



1928 
Van Poeteren, N. (126) 

Verslag over de Werkzaamheden van den Plantenziektenkundigen 
Dienst in het Jaar 1926. Verslag. en Plantenziektenkund. 
Dienst Wageningen. 51, 100 pp. 

Reports the continuation of rearing" of Aphelinus mali and its 
distribution. 

(127) 



Vraagstukken in verband met ziektebestrijding in de fruitteelt. 
Tijdschr. over Plantenziekten. 34(8): 211-229. 

The introduction of Aphelinus mali into Holland in 1926 in 
80 fruit-growing localities has not yet given rise to large colonies. 

1929 
Anonymous (128) 

The breeding of beneficial parasites. Science 41(1780): 152. 

An account of the work of the laboratory for rearing beneficial 
parasites, recently established in England by the Empire Marketing 
Board and under the control of the Imperial Bureau of Entomology. 
This laboratory sent consignments of Aphelinus mali to India and 
Kenya. 

Howard, L. O. (129) 

Aphelinus mali and its travels. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 22(3): 341-368. 

The history of A. mali , the North American parasite of the 
woolly apple aphid, is discussed, as well as its introduction into 
various parts of the world. 

Jancke, O. (130) 

Zur Frage der Ueberwinterung der Blutlaus und ihres Parasiten 
Aphelinus mali Hald. Nachrichtenbl. f. den Deut. 
Pflanzenschutzdienst 9(10): 83-85. 

Twigs infested with woolly apple aphid parasitized by A. mali 
were placed on apple in the open at Naumburg in the autumn of 
1928, and in April and June 1929 the parasite was found to have 
survived the very severe winter. 






I . 

'..;'■. Ital, 

Id winters a summers, Aj 

n rol the woolly id. It withstands I 

;. if still within its host. 

chal, P, *2) 

Les enemis du pu onditions biologiques et 

: 5a multiplication. Trai* ... des 

Epiphyt. 15(3): 125-181. 

t, mostly taken from the literature, of the intro- 
. and establish:: • : Aphelil n ;li fro: " rth Am- I . 

in 1920 and 1921, and its S] i distribution in France up to 

l!*2H. II also gives notes on its distril itioi ::-. various ; arts of 
the world, with notes on its biology. Records of its occurrence 
in other species of aphids than Enosoma lar.itzerum are proba: 
Lfication. 

Regmrr, R. 33) 

E* • lei de la question de 1' acclin. r / j Ii, 

paras. \ cain du puceron lai 

Pomol., G pp. 

•es thai the i Lixnate :.dy, northern Fi .nd 

gland is not so fa. lishm- li 

that of th< M Ion, which is n 

. S 
. 

host is 

V • ■ bl< . E. P. 

■-• 

ill m.). I ■• ' • >'' . (26): 21 

mends introduct 
Colui •• aphid. Th 



27- 



1930 
Anonymous (135) 

(Aphelinus mali .) Oreg. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bien. Rpt. 1929-30: 16, 
17, 86-90, 126-128, 138, 139. U. S. Dept. Agr. Expt. Sta. 
Rec. 64: 355. 

Refers to the introduction of A_. mali into the Hood River, Oreg. 
district in the fall of 1928 from Michigan, and states that it has 
become well established and has survived two winters. 

(136) 



The Entomological Branch. Canada Min. Agr. Rpt., 1929-30: 
128-150. 

Aphelinus mali was liberated against Eriosoma lanigerum. 

Childs, L., and Gillespie, D. G. (137) 

Notes on the introduction of the woolly apple aphid parasite, 
Aphelinus mali . Jour. Econ. Ent. 23: 790-794. 

Discusses in some detail the introduction and establishment 
of Aphelinus mali in the Hood River district of Oregon in 1928 
with material from Michigan. 

Cooley, R. A. (138) 

Montana insect pests for 1929 and 1930* Montana Agr. Expt. Sta. 
Bui. 238, 23 pp. 

States that Aphelinus mali is to be introduced to control the 
woolly apple aphid, which is particularly injurious in the Bitter 
Root Valley. 

Howard, L. O. (139) 

A history of applied entomology. Smithsn. Inst. Misc. Collect. 
84, 564 pp. 

Mentions (pp. 504-506) the distribution of Aphelinus mali from 
the United States to France, and from France or the United States 
to England, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Australia, 
South Africa, Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. It has been especially 
effective in New Zealand and Australia. Refers (p. 505) to the work 
of Trouvelot (94) in 1925, and states that since his publication A. 
mali has been taken with success to many different countries and 
different life zones. Mentions acclimatization in France (p. 507), 
introduction into Argentina (p. 510), and introduction in Australia 









fl 

:. L. 

36. 

•' . 

11. 

•id investigation of th- 

l_i. 



-29 - 



1930 
Sprengel, L. (145) 

Stand der Kenntnisse uber die biologische Bekampfung der Blutlaus 
( Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) mit Aphelinus mali Hald., in 
Europa. Gartenbauwissenschaft 4(1): 11-37. 

A history is given of the introduction of A. mali into various 
countries in Europe during the past 40 years. Notes are also 
given on the biology of the parasite, together with methods for 
its liberation. 

Van Poeteren, N. (146) 

Verslag over de Werkzaamhenden van den Plantenziektenkundigen 
Dienst in het Jaar 1929. Verslag. en Meded. Plantenziektenkund. 
Dienst Wageningen. 62, 142 pp. 

Aphelinus mali survived the very severe winter of 1928-29. 

Veitch, R. (147) 

Reports of the chief entomologist. Queensland Dept. Agr. Ann. 
Rpt., 1928-29: 67-71; 1929-30: 65-66. 

Aphelinus mali continues to check the woolly apple aphid. 

1931 

Baird, A. B. (148) 

Biological control of insect pests with special reference to vege- 
table insects. Ontario Veg. Growers' Assoc. Ann. Rpt. 26: 39. 

Aphelinus mali mentioned. 

Del Geurcio, G. (149) 

La vespina che libera il pomario della Schizoneora del melo e del 
pero e salva diecine di milioni alP economia nazionale ( Aphelinus 
mali Hald.) Redia 19: 253-307. 

Discusses the various forms of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma 
lanigerum (Hausm.). The establishment of its parasite, Aphelinus 
mali , saves Italy many millions of lire. 

Feytaud, J. (150) 

Rapports sommaires sur les travaux accomplis dans les laboratoires 
en 1930. Ann. des Epiphyt. 17(1): 62-112. 

The Bordeaux station has successfully disseminated Aphelinus 
mali against the woolly apple aphid. 



30- 



1931 
G L < . . , K . r , 1 ) 

Th< S of parasite introduction in British Columl Int. 

It. Columbia P. 58: 29-32 

Apht-ln, . - • •. ii, Lntl nto British Columbia in 1922, has 

si. i but has not com] I .ts host. 

Massec, A. M. 52) 

Notes on mites and insect pests. East Mailing ^Jtent^ Res. Sta. 
Hith-18th Ann. Rpt., 1928-30, pt. 2 (sup.): 189-201. 

I nsui i • ssful attempts to establish Aphelinus mali in 1925, 
1927, and 1928 are discussed. Further attempts in 1929 were 
successful, the parasite becoming established in 1930 in original 

and neighboring orchards. 

Menzel, K. (153) 

Beobachtungen uber das diesjahrige Verhalten des Blutlausparasiten 
Aphelinus mali. Schweiz. Ztschr. f. Obst. u Weinbau 40(5-6): 

117-1 19. 

A. mali survived the winter of 1929-30 in Switzerland, as 
h id the preceding winter, and parasitism of 100 percent was 
observed in 1930. 

per, w . 

Die Blutlauszehrwespe in Welschtirol iinus mal . H I i.). 

v . aufdemGeb. des Pflanzens. h .-.-., 1931(4) 

A . n a li has con plet< pie a] ".id in I 

l ■:. !. where it had been very seve: 

i by fl> • 3 the rh 

. nfall I 

mgel, L. 
U1 hyperi 

s hfidlingsk., 7(11): 1 3 . 

i .. ■ .•. 

Bch.i I reared In 1 1 

report* I as th< 

• . 



-31 - 



1931 
Veitch, R. (156) 

Report of the chief entomologist. Queensland Dept. Agr. Ann. 
Rpt., 1930-31: 43-46. 

Aphelinus mali , although effective in controlling the woolly 
apple aphid in previous years, was not so effective in the past 
season. 

Venables, E. P. (157) 

Aphelinus mali Hald., a parasite of the woolly aphis. Ent. Soc. 
Brit. Columbia Proc. 28: 16-18. 

A brief review of the distribution of A. mali into various parts 
of the world, and a short account of its introduction from Ontario 
into the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia in 1929. 

Werneck, H. L. (158) 

Beitrage zur Einfuhrung und Verbreitung der Blutlauszehrwespe 
Oberosterreich. Gartenbauwissenschaft 5: 360. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali into Austria from 
France in 1926. It successfully competes with its host in Upper 
Austria and near Linz. 

1932 
Childs, L., and Gillespie, D. G. (159) 

Production and spread of the woolly aphid parasite, Aphelinus 
mali, in the Hood River Valley. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25(5): 
1013-1016. 

Reports the introduction and establishment of A. mali from 
Michigan into the Hood River Valley and other points in Oregon 
in 1929. Notes are also given on methods of liberation and on 
the biology of the parasite. 

Kamito, S. (160) 

/On the biological control of pests in the countries along the 
Pacific Ocearu/ Oyo-Dobutsugaku Zasshi 4(3): 154-158. 
£In Japanese/ 

Aphelinus mali was introduced from Oregon into Japan, and 
is being reared there. 






a 

when it was disco 
85 

int lavia on 

lis, II. >i2) 

voolly aphis Jour. A. 

-103. 

The origin .vooll;. s par 

■iclinus mali , is attributed 

s introduced into Tasmani;. s ago, 

extraordinary extent and S] 
So it is distributed by th< aphid 

early stages of parasitism is presented. 

ell Comas, J. 
Aptu-lin su difusion en Es. Bol. 

Ent, Agr. 6(1931, 23-: 

Reports th. 

It is 



-33- 



1932 
Veitch, R. (166) 

Report of the chief entomologist. Queensland Dept. Agr. Ann. 
Rpt., 1931-32: 51-55. 

Aphelinus mali controlled the woolly apple aphid in many 
orchards. 

Ward, F. E. (167) 

/Notes on insect pestsT/ Tasmania Dept. Agr. Ann. Rpt., 
1930-31: 41; 1931-32: 41-44. 

Liberation of Aphelinus mali was continued in 1931 and 1932. 

Weir, Robert (168) 

Canada Department of Agriculture. Work of the Entomological"" 
Branch during the year ended March 31, 1932. Canada Min. 
Agr. Rpt., 1931-32: 178. 

Aphelinus mali mentioned. 

1933 
Marlatt, C. L. (169) 

Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology, 1933. U. S. 
Bur. Ent. Ann. Rpt., 1933: 3. 

Aphelinus mali was shipped to Ecuador. 

Massee, A. M. (170) 

Notes on insect pests and mites in 1932. East Mailing [KenTj 
Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt., 1932, 20: 109-116. 

Discusses the introduction of Aphelinus mali into several 
orchards in 1931 and 1932, and its establishment in some of 
them. 

Meier, N. F., and Telenga, N. A. (171) 

Ueber biologische Bekampfung der Blutblattlaus ( Eriosoma 
lanigerum Hausm.) durch ihren Parasit- - Aphelinus mali 
Hald., in USSR. Plant Protect. 1932(3): 17-24. 
^Summary in German^ 

Reports the introduction in 1930 of A_. mali i nto Crimea and 
North Caucausus with material from Italy. Also discusses the 
biology of the parasite. It survived the severe winter in the 
Crimea, and three hyperparasites were reared from it. 



• 



1933 
E. J. (1 

wesi and • ontrol. I . S. 

D( . ' , Cir. 270: 69. 

Aphcliiius nuili has been successfully introduced into the Pac; 

-.h-A-.-st. (S»-.- .Is _ 

Pussard, R. (173) 

Observation sur l'accl Aph( lie •.. H.ild. (Hyi 

Chalcid.) a Saint-Genis-Laval, So . Linn, de Lyon Bui. 
Mens. (2) 2(1): L2. 

A. mail was introduced into the Lyons district and other 
orchards in the neighborhood In June 19 

Wille, J. 

El control del pulgon lanigero del manzano mediante su parasito 
natural, el Aphelinus mail . [PeruJ I:.:. Esta . Ex] . A r. 

Min. de Fomento 19: 6-10. 

The discovery of A. mail in Peru in 1930 and its distribution 
throughout the country is described, together with an account of 
its biolo^ 

1934 
A : nymous 

■ort of activities of the H Institute in Z b and 

lent on it in 1932^ S . -med. Pr< 

): 28-60. lln S« Z 

Reports the inl ■ . :r.us n-. 

in Z • eb. 'I he wroollj 
by t hi- pi 

Bod, , 1 . 

he] Lnus mali In Burgenlai I Neuheit, 

des Pfla ■ .( 1 ): l . 

1 ) . : A . rnal; 

>m the l ;• ro] 

nt in ; '.'. here used 

• • »j tl 



- 35 



1934 
Fowler, R. (177) 

The use of chemically treated corrugated bands as a supplementary 
control for codling moth. So. Austral. Dept. Agr. Jour. 38(4): 
453-456. 

Chemically treated bands placed on apple-tree trunks had 
caught great numbers of woolly apple aphids while they were 
migrating to the roots, but there were not so many in 1933-34, 
as Aphelinus mali had been numerous. 

Greenslade, R. M., and Massee, A. M. (178) 

Some notes on the woolly aphis parasite ( Aphelinus mali Hald.). 
East Mailing /Kent7 Res. Sta. Rpt., 1933(21): 225-227. 

Describes the introduction and establishment of A. mali into 
Kent in 1933. It migrated against the prevailing winds and com- 
pletely eradicated the woolly apple aphid. Tar-distillate and 
lime-sulfur sprays did not appear to retard the parasite. In 
another center it was not effective and sprays had to be applied 
to control the aphid. 

Jancke, O. (179) 

«• 

Zur Ausbreitungsfahigheit der Blutlauszehrwespe Aphelinus mali 
Hald. Arb. uber Physiol, u. Angew. Ent. 1(2): 101-109. 

The author discusses the spread of A. mali , particularly in 
Germany. He believes that reported dissemination of consider- 
able distances is due to man, and not to natural distribution. 

Marcovitch, S. (180) 

The woolly apple aphid in Tennessee. Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 
151. 

Aphelinus mali is often capable of wiping out the aerial forms 
of the woolly apple aphid. 

Marek, (181) 

Die biologische Bekampfung der Blutlaus. Landw., Vienna, 1933: 
323-325, illus„ (Abs. in Neuheit. auf dem Geb. des 
Pflanzenschutz. 27(5): 128.) 

Aphelinus mali introduced into Austria, survived the winter of 
1932-33 in only small numbers, owing to severe winter weather. 
Those enclosed in a tent around some trees survived much better. 



(182) 









I. 

aid 

H 
A 

ins. 82(2): •; 
A. "d in • rkshire d 

De Lng en verbr 

de bh derland. r. 

i 1 2): . 8. 

ful, th< 
I.. A. 

I 



(185) 



- 37 



1934 
Yothers, M. A. (188) 

Report on the introduction of Aphelinus mali Hald., a parasite of 
the woolly apple aphid in the Wenatchee, Wash., district. 
Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 30(1934): 68-71. 

Consignments of A. mali were obtained from Ontario and 
Oregon in 1931 for the control of Eriosoma lanigerum , in view 
of its association with perennial canker. In July the parasites 
were introduced into a large cage constructed around a heavily 
infested apple tree, and within 60 days their numbers had in- 
creased so that 25,500 of their progeny were released. Others 
were released later, and by 1934 the parasite had checked the 
aphid in many orchards throughout the district. 

1935 
Anonymous (189) 

Woolly aphis killed by hungry parasite. Yakima, Wash., Fruit 
Growers* Assoc. "Big Y" Bui. 14(1): 6. 

A brief popular discussion of the success of the woolly apple 
aphid parasite, Aphelinus mali , in controlling the aphid in the 
Wenatchee, Wash, district, and its spread over 8 to 10 square 
miles. (See 188). 

(190) 



Memoria de los trabajos realizados por la Estacion de Fitapatologia 
agricola de La Coruia, ano 1934. Galicia Pub. Estac. Fitopat. 
Agr. 10, 79 pp. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali , from Barcelona 
into Galicia (Poland) and its successful establishment and re- 
distribution into other districts. 



(191) 



Insect pests and their control. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales 46(7): 
394-398. 

In most apple orchards the woolly apple aphid is kept under 
control by the parasite Aphelinus mali. 



38 



135 
Aller, Curti (I 

y aphid parasr . Wash., 

S V')thers(lH f success- 
ful introduc ' is mail inl -natchee, •• 
district, and offers s wers in the 

kima distrii 

Bor , P. 

K--port of the plant pathologist. *■' . , >3-34: 

3, 43 -4' 

Aphelinus mali was successfully introduced from Italy into 
Malta and Gozo in 1933-34 and spread into all orchards. 

Ci'shk, W., and Kawecki, Z. (1 

L'apparition en Pologne de l^ Aphdinus m ... Hald. Acad. 
Cracovie Compt. Fiend. 9: 5. 

In October 1935 A. mali appeared in several districts 



Poland without h been artifically intr 



J ' ' hi<0 In 

the I 






Das spontane Auftreten der Blutlauszehrewesj ■•■ _2_____: "■ *1* 
Hald. In Polen, ' . Cra t. Bui. | 193 (8-1 

The « is in ( 194 ). 

I . P. (1 

sts. U. S. i t. Agr. 

l. 

:d 

• .son .i ; 

i Li. 






39 



1935 



is kept under control at times by the parasite Aphelinus mali . 
This parasite did not accompany the aphid in its distribution to 
the western part of the country, but its introduction into the Hood 
River Valley of Oregon and the Wenatchee district of Washington, 
resulted in a large measure of control. It was not due to adverse 
conditions that the parasite did not become established earlier. 

Cottier, W. (198) 

Aphides affecting cultivated plants: (4) aphides of the peach, plum, 
and apple. New Zeal. Dept. Agr. Jour. 51(1): 26-31. 

Since the introduction of Aphelinus mali the woolly apple aphid 
has ceased to be a serious pest. 

Deutschmann, F. (199) 

Die Blutlauszehrwespe in Sudm*ahren„ Ztschr. f. Pflanzenkrank. 
45(1): 41-44. 

The author reports his introduction of Aphelinus mali into 
Moravia from Italy in 1933, and states that it has kept the woolly 
apple aphid in check. 



«« 



(200) 



Die Blutlauszehrwespe in Sudmahren. Kranke Pflanze 12(1): 4-6. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali from Italy into 
southern Moravia in 1933, where it became so abundant that no 
woolly apple aphids were observed in July 1934. 

Jancke, O. (201) 

Ueber den Einfluss einiger Blutlaus-Bekampfungsmittel auf die 
Entwicklung des Blutlausparasiten Aphelinus mali. Arb. 
uber Physiol, u. Angew. Ent. 2(2): 96-98. 

Discusses the results of laboratory tests of sprays upon A. 
mali . Some preparations would completely destroy the aphid 
without harming the parasite. 

Massee, A. M. (202) 

Notes on mite and insect pests for the year 1934. East Mailing 
/Kent/ Res. Sta. Ann. Rpt., 1934(22): 165-172. 

Aphelinus mali , liberated in the spring of 1933, had become 
well established by October 1934 and had spread into adjoining 
orchards. 



a 

I 

lit: 

. K. I . M. 
Th he apple (El 

" 12. 

Aphelin ;ntrod , etoria in 19. usua: 

the woolly apple aphid und \trol in most orch 

dealii ments of 
sit >hids. 

_ V. P, 

_ lima- linus 

isusj Plant Protect. 1935(2): I :•'. J" Q 

n A. j 

All 

Aphrlinus ma! 
let, G< 

Q 

Ti 

* 
^ 



(206) 



- 41 - 



1935 
Strong, L. A. (209) 

New parasite aids fight on insect pest of fruit. Midwest Fruitman 

8(9): 8. 

Aphelinus mali as a parasite of woolly apple aphid. 

Sweetman, H. L. (210) 

The biological control of insects. 461 p., illus. Ithaca, N. Y„ 

Aphelinus mali , pp. 154-156, 275, 351, 354. 

Yakhontov, V. V. (211) 

^n Aphelinus mali Hald., a parasite of the woolly apple aphis 
( Eriosoma lanigerum HausroJ/ Sotziol. Nauka. Tekhn. 3(9); 
T4~. /Jn Russian^ 

A. mali, introduced into Tashkent in 1932, survived the 
unusually severe winter of 1932-33, and became well established 
the following season. By 1935 the parasite was found in other 
orchards several thousand yards away. 

1936 
Anonymous (212) 

Auftreten der Blutlauszehrwespe Aphelinus mali Hald., in Polen. 
Nachrichtenbl. f. den Deut. Pflanzenschutzdienst 16(8): 79. 

It is reported that A. mali has become established in Poland 
without having been introduced there artifically. It has withstood 
the Polish winters. 

(213) 



Rapports sommaires sur les travaux accomplish dans les 
laboratoires en 1934 et 1935. Ann. des Epipthyt. et de 
Phytoge'ne't. n. ser. 2(3): 405-422. 

It has been difficult to establish Aphelinus mali in some parts 
of Normandy because the host, the woolly apple aphid, does not 
appear early enough in the spring to furnish propagation material. 

Borg, P. (214) 

Report of the plant pathologist. Malta Dept. Agr. Rpt., 1934-1935. 
liii-lxi. 

Aphelinus mali was introduced into Gozo and Malta in 1934 from 
Italy. Many of the parasites and their hosts, Eriosoma lanigerum , 
were destroyed during the summer of 1934 by Coccinella septem- 
punctara L. 






If' 

/Results o:~ rnatis is n .. U ea7 

r. tt }■: . ~ 

Rej rts the mass breedir. . mall in Crimea, whe: id 

been successfully introduced in 1933. Liberate M iOO 

acre.s r 14,800 tg woolly apple aphid 

•ation by 70 to 80 perce/ t. 

Clausen, C. P. (216) 

Ins' ->itism and biological control. Ent. Soc. An. on. 

I -223. 

Discusses the relation between chemicals and biological con- 
trol and reviews the work on this subject by Jancke and by Noble, 
with reference to Aphelinus ma its host, the woolly apple 

hid. 

Delia Beffa, G. (2 

Relazione sull attivita del laboratoria e K. Osservatorio di 
1 .• • logia di Torino nell'ani.o 1935. 11 pp. 

Reports the reintroduction of Aphelinus mall into the Piedmont 
region and elsewhere dun tr. 

De Santis, L. -8) 

I. isitos e hiperparasil ^entinos de los insect 

pr< a La agrici Ltura | H;- menopt 

Un parasit cochinilla blai del rosal. l n 

sito secondai luenos Aires .) 

I il. de Agr. 16(1 1): 

Thi alid h ' ■-■.: '■•■ ■ j -is 

i , which had "d 

. Aphel mus m. ih . 

... Z. 

i I Blu1 ■' In Sud 1 > 

_ 

i ■ j 

thai LI should 



-43 - 



1936 
Kiwitt, O. (220) 

/The acclimatisation of Aphelinus mali Hald. in the North 

CaucaususT/ Plant Protect. 1936(8): 104-108. /T*n Russian^/ 

Reports the introduction and successful establishment of A. 
mali in the southeastern part of North Caucasus in 1933. Survived 
minimum winter temperatures of 13 F. below zero. In 1935 it 
was introduced successfully into Daghestan. 

Nakayama, S. (221) 

/Experiments on the introduction, establishment and utilization 
of Aphelinus mali Haldem., a parasite of Eriosoma lanigerum 
Hausm. First Report^/ Agr. Expt. Sta. Corea Jour. 8(2-3): 
136-149. /Tri Japanese?/ 

A. mali was introduced into Korea from Japan in 1934. Sprays 
have not affected the progress of the parasite. Biological data are 
given. 

Sidorovnina, E. P., and Ismailov, A. (222) 

/Summary of the scientific research work of the Institute of Plant 
Protection for the year 19357/ Roy. 8 vo. 596 pp. /in Russian^/ 

Discusses the effective establishment and distribution of 
Aphelinus mali (pp. 313-316) in the different orchard districts 
in the area of Azerbaijan into which the parasite had been intro- 
duced 2 years earlier. 

1937 
Anonymous (223) 

Rapports sommaires sur les travaux accomplis dans les 

laboratoires en 1936. Ann. des Epiphyt. et de Phytogenet. 
n. ser. 3(2): 275-290. 

Reports the distribution throughout France of Aphelinus mali 
reared at the Bordeaux station. 

(224) 



Diseases, insects, and other pest injuries to plants. Kans. Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Rpt. 8(1934-36): 90-106. 

Aphelinus mali was liberated during the years 1934-36. 






B< 

I 

■ . « 

A. ed 

re it | of the woo: 






especially in midsummer. 

H. L. 

iptions of miscellarv 

Hyme Puerto R 

121-1 

Thi 

1 1 ■ 

nd is • ' to be 

I 
th< 



- 45 



1937 
Jary, S. G., and Austin, M. D. (229) 

Department of Entomology. /Report 1935-367/ Southeast Agr. 
Col. Jour. 39: 9-15. 

Aphelinus mali has been liberated in two localities in Kent, 
and appears to be established in both. 

Kovacevic' Z. (230) 

Prilog poznavanju Aphelinus mali . Arh. Min. Poljoprivr. Rpt. 
4(6): 19 pp. ^With summary in Germaru/ 

A. mali Hald., was discovered in Jugoslovia in 1930 and has 
spread throughout practically the whole country, wherever apples 
are infested by the woolly apple aphid. Biological data are also 
given. 

Morris, H. M. (231) 

Annual report of the Entomologist for 1936. Cyprus Dept. Agr. 
Rpt., 1936: 40-49. 

Aphelinus mali , introduced into Cyprus from England, does 
not appear to have become established. 

Polizu, S. (232) 

^The parasite of the woolly aphis in Bessarabia and BukovinaT/ 
Bessarabsk. s. -kh. Vyestn. 1937(6): 7-9. £fn Russian^ 

An attempt to introduce Aphelinus mali into Rumania in 1923 
seemed unsuccessful, but it was found in Moldavia in 1924. In 
1936-37 it was giving a high percentage of parasitism in both 
Bessarabia and Bukovina. Suggests that the parasite may have 
reached Bessarabia by gradually migrating down the Danube from 
Jugoslavia. Notes on the biology are given. 

Sachtleben, H„ and Thiem, H. (233) 

Die Aussetzung der Blutlauszehrwespe ( Aphelinus mali Hald.) 
in Berlin-Dahlem und ihre Verbreitung in der Provinz 
Brandenburg. Arb. uber Physiol, u Angew. Ent. 4(4): 297-321. 

Sachtleben (pp. 297-299) describes the introduction of A. mali 
into the Berlin-Dahlem district in 1928 with material from Italy. 
Thiem (pp. 299-321) reports that the parasite is present in 
various parts of Germany, in some of which it was liberated 
in 1924-35. 



• 



__ i '• (2 

North i ->us7 

Pi t. 13: 69-7T J:. R . ■ 7~ 

A. ■ .- . ■. . . h is. II ioes not 

hid fron 
g but d( : them di. he summer, 

• . : pies. 

Speyer, W. (235) 

Lent der Biol .( hsanstalt fur Land- und 

haft, Zw tade. .. . : 1936 

bis 31. Marz 1937. Altlander Obst. u. Landv. . . o9, 

4 pp. 

Although Aph'-hnus mali is well established and d 
of the woolly a{ pie aphids, other control measures cannot be ti 
regard' 

• . E. P. 36) 

rther notes on the woolly aphis parasite Aphelinus mali H -.Id. 
Ent. Soc. Brit. C P . 3 4: 33-35. 

Reports the successful ii nd establishment of A. 

li in the Okana^i!. V ill* j , British C I m ' La. Large nu: 
of " 1 in large cages during the 4 years 

fo] its initial Lntrod 192i'. 

to be in: 
I Included. 

I, C, 

31. 

Aphrlmus m.i I. 
pie on hard Into whn h it had been Intr 

P Danznark 1937, 

Aphrl . ■ 

hopes th ntrol the woolly app 

try, 



-47- 



1938 
Ballard, E. (239) 

Report of the chief of plant protection officer for the year ended 
31st March 1938. Palestine and Forests Dept. Agr. Rpt., 
1937-38, 71-73. 

Aphelinus mali was introduced into Palestine from Egypt in 1937. 

de Nardo, A. (240) 

Annual report of the working of the department of agriculture 
(Malta) during 1936-37. 77 pp. 

Eriosoma lanigerum was well controlled in all apple orchards 
by Aphelinus mali . 

Dumbleton, L. J., and Jeffreys, F. J. (241) 

The control of the woolly aphis by Aphelinus mali. New Zeal. 
Jour. Sci. and Technol. 20(3): 183A-190A~ 

Discusses the percentages of parasitism in the field by A. 
mali , and gives biological notes on factors influencing control 
of woolly apple aphids. 

Evans, J. W. (242) 

Aphides and their control. Tasmanian Jour. Agr. 9(1): 20-23. 

Eriosoma lanigerum is now of little importance owing to the 
establishment of Aphelinus mali . 

Meier, N. F. (243) 

^The biological method of controlling injurious insects and the 
results of its application in the USSR. (With the addition of 
material on the races of Trichogramma.]j Zool. Zhur. 
17(5): 905-932. /Tn RussianJ 

Reports the results of work in the Russian Union since 1930, 
including the successful establishment of Aphelinus mali . 
Discusses the effect of temperatures on the activities of the 
parasite. 

Morris, H. M. (244) 

Annual report of the entomologist for 1937. Cyprus Dept. Agr. 
Rpt., 1937: 42-47. 

Aphelinus mali, introduced into Cyprus in 1936, was present 
in one apple orchard in 1937. 



- 48 



1938 

( . J. 

s -^ 

\\ . y diffusion del A_ mali (Hald.) in Espan 

i . ie Patol. Veg. 8: 17 

A irvey of the distnb .tion in Spain of A. mali parasitising 
Erj soma lanigerum . 

Ruszkowski, J. 

Rozmiez< /.• vstepowania korowki welnistej w Polsce w 1936 

l 1937. Rocz. Ochrony Roslin 5(4): 123-128. 

Aphclinus mali , which has established itself in some parts of 
Poland, has al en introduced into Silesia fror: .and and 

Barcelona and liberated in about 34 localities, in some of which 
it is very active. 

oshima, A. 

/Studies on Aphelinus mali Hald., a parasite of E ■■'■_'" ' 

H jsrm Apple Expt. Sta., Aomori Pref., Rpt. '. , 23 pj ., ... IS. 

J_: Japanese^/ 

A. mali was introduced into Aomori Prefecture from Oregon 
(I . S. A.), in 1931, and has become « stablished in the orchards. 

Biological observations are included. 

1939 
Anonymous ^8) 

Me- de los trabajos r< por la Estacion de Pito| 

Agricol I ' ~os 1937-1938. Publ. Estac. Fitopat 

A r. Galir, I 

.<• distril utl i f Apl mali againsl E 

Lnued Ln 18. 



I hid ( ErJOSOn a lanigcra ). P 
Bui., 18 1-23. 

Aphel . ili, Lntrodu I i 

ii .lis in I oily 

:>e 
ted. 



- 49 - 



1939 
Baird, A. B. (250) 

Biological control of insect pests in Canada with special reference 
to the control of the European spruce sawfly, Gilpinia polytoma 
Htg. Ent. Soc. Ontario Ann. Rpt. 70: 51-56." 

The woolly apple aphid parasite, Aphelinus mali , transferred 
from Belleville, Ont., in 1929, has reduced its host and proved 
of tremendous value to the Okanagan growers. 

Clausen, C. P. (251) 

Some phases of biological control work applicable to sugarcane 
insect problems. Internatl. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. Cong. 
Proc. 6: 421-426. 

Many native parasites and predators are very limited in distri- 
bution, although conditions are favorable for them over a wide 
area, in which they can be successfully liberated. Parasites that 
have been used in this way in the United States are Aphelinus mali, 
against the woolly apple aphid. 

Cox, J. A. (252) 

A preliminary report on the woolly aphids of apple and hawthorn. 
Jour. Econ. Ent. 32(4): 477-483. 

Aphelinus mali was not reared from Eriosoma crataegi Oestl. 
in field collections and would not attack this species when caged 
in the field or in the laboratory. Infestations of E. lanigerum 
on hawthorn were often located by observing parasitized individuals. 

Haegele, R. W. (253) 

/ Aphelinus mali Hald^y Idaho Univ. News Let. 22: 3. 

Liberations of the woolly apple aphid parasite were made in 
the orchard at Parma during 1935 and 1936. It seemed to establish 
itself readily, for in the fall of 1936 practically all the exposed 
woolly apple aphids were parasitized. The effectiveness of this 
parasite in Washington and Oregon is noted, with the hope that it 
will be equally effective in Idaho. 

Lundie, A. E. (254) 

The apple grower's insect ally. Farming in So. Africa, 1939, 
Rpt. 92, 5 pp. 

A brief review is given of the distribution of Aphelinus mali 
throughout the world from original sources in the United States. 
It was introduced into Sough Africa in 1920, and is now so effective 
where the woolly apple aphid is present that spraying is unnecessary 
in most orchards. 



- 50 - 



, H. M. (255) 

nual • tomologist for 1938. 

1938, 5 | . 

A;.h'-lin ..- r:...li is r. 1 established in one orchard . 

it was Liberated in 1936, and has been distributed from this area 
to others. 

man, K. A. i6) 

Short notes and exhibits, [ndi ill Jour. Ent. 1(3): 93-99. 

A;>lu-linus mali , introduced into the Punjab from England in 
1937, is well established in tht- Kulu Valley and on the Simla 
Hills and has given satisfactory results. It has about 14 gene: 
tions a year. 

Staniland, L. N., and Beaumont, (2 

Department of Plant Pathology. Fifteenth Ann. Rpt. for the year 
endinj ;938. Seale-Hayne ol. Pam. 49, 39 pp. 

Although original liberations I ; mali had not appeared 

promising, after several years .e aphid was almost 

tirely absent, owing to this parasite. 

Whittal ■ ■ , E. C. ^8) 

Pr • the woolly aphis parasite. nt of prunir. 

in tit. N. S. Wales ■' i05-506. 

tly Aphelinus n s not :.trol of tl. 1 

hid until 

■ its host is 
th( us< sulfur 

tored until 
• hen p] 
. 

\n ^ 

ri'-hnus mail H .M^ « . Sci. Res. H 

1939, 34 

■ 

< 



-51 - 



1940 
Anonymous (260) 

Some common insect pests of fruit trees and vines in South 
Australia. Part II. Sucking insects. So. Austral. Dept. 
Agr. Jour. 43(9): 633-646. 

Recommends that Aphelinus mali be introduced into woolly 
apple aphid infested orchards to control this pest on the parts 
of the trees above ground. 

_^____ (261) 



Review of the year 1939. Plant Protection. Palestine Monthly 
Agr. Bui., Jan. 1940: 64-65. 

Chemical measures were required to supplement the control 
of the woolly apple aphid by Aphelinus mali . 

Clausen, C. P. (262) 

Entomophagous insects. 688 pp., illus. McGraw-Hill, New York. 

Aphelinus mali , p. 157, 159, 166, and 168. 

Ehrenhardt, H. (263) 

Untersuchungen uber den Einfluss der Zehrwespe Aphelinus mali 
auf den Massenwechsel der Blutlaus unter Berucksichtigung 
der biologischen Bekampfung der Blutlaus. Arb. uber Physiol, 
u. Angew. Ent. 7: 1-41. (Abs. in Ztschr. f. Pflanzenkrank. 
52(11): 524-525.) 

Reports the introduction and spread of A. mali in orchards in 
the Lower Elbe. Discusses biological data and the probable 
means as to its rapid spread over great distances. 

Faes, H. (264) 

Station federale d'essais viticoles et arboricoles a Lausanne et 
Domaine de Pully. Rap. Ann., 1938. Landw. Jahrb. des 
Schweiz 54(1): 1-26. 

Eriosoma lanigerum on apple was eliminated in the autumn by 
Aphelinus mali in the Domaine de Pully. 






1^ 
I Cortes Pen R. o5) 

3 en Chile, resumen de las 
• sus results Sixth 

Con«. i 

Aphelinus mali was successfully introduced into Chil* 
•21-22. It is fail 5ful in controlling the woo!. .e 

hid, especially in the seas 

Ishn, T. 36) 

The problems of biological control in Japan, th Pa* 

Cong. Proc. 193 165-36' 

•lelinus mali , introduced into Japan from ' . es 

eff' control against the woolly apple aphid. 

.-.corner, E. J. S7) 

Natural dispersion of Aphelinus mali (Hald.). Jour. Econ. 
33(5): 81 1. 

K'-ports three localities wher* A. rr.ali had spread several 
miles from other sources of infestation. 

Wille, J. E. , i&) 

Men le la esta< xperiment) I ola de L.i Molina 

com n 1939. <_i j* ento. 

Agr. Expt. Est., . M- :: . 12(24), 1 

stribution of Aphelinus mali « :.ued against 

Erioson ■. •. . :y rum on appli 

141 
A is >9) 

M< >n de Fito- 

r | , aHbs 1 '• . 

Fitop. Agr. ( 

Iinus mail 1 
lib- Erii >soma la 

. 



-53 - 



1941 
Anonymous (270) 

Insect pests. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales 53(1): 33-37. 

Reports that Aphelinus mali is now distributed throughout 
the State and exercises good control of the woolly apple aphid. 
Discusses the effect of sprays on the parasite. 

Annand, P. N. (271) 

Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, 1941. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. Ann. 
Rpt. 1941: 98. 

Aphelinus mali was shipped to Ecuador and Venezuela. 

Castberg, C. (272) 

Nya ron angaende blodlusen. (Sweden) Vaxtskyddsnotiser 1941(6): 
86-90. 

In spite of the cold winter of 1940-41 in Sweden, the young 
nymphs of the woolly apple aphid survived in cracks in the bark 
of apple trees, although older individuals did not. Aphelinus ' 
mali , which has been introduced into Sweden, has been able to 
survive the cold winters, but has not been generally effective in 
controlling the woolly apple aphid. 

De Santis, L. (273) 

Lista de himenopteros parasitosy predatores de los insectos de 
la Republica Argentina. Brasil. Agron. Soc. Bol. Rpt. 
4(1): 66 pp. 

New host records for parasites in Argentine include Aphelinus 
mali , from Aspidiotus hederae Vail. 

Jancke, O. (274) 

Stand der chemischen und biologischen Bekampfung der Blutlaus. 
Kranke Pflanze 18: 26-29. 

States that Aphelinus mali does not effectively control the 
woolly apple aphid in Germany and that chemical control is 
therefore necessary. 






19 4, 
r, E. J. (275) 

Or ts of the Pa> N st and their control. 

I . S. D< pt. Agr. ' ■ . 270: 25-69, illus. R 

States tr successful establishment Linus rr. 

th< P kes spraying for thi -'. of the woo! 

apple aphid unnecessary in pie orchards. also '. 

and 310 .) 

Rahman, K. A., and Abdul Wahid Kahn, M. (276) 

Oi nations on Aphelinus mali Hald. in the Punjab. Indian Jo-. 

- .. 2(3): 446-4. n. 

_A. mali was introduced and became established in the Kulu 
Lej (Punjab). Females refused to oviposit in 13 other species 
of aphids offered them, but a single female parasitized up to 220 
woolly apple aphids. Twigs containing parasites should be saved 
away from trees that are to be sprayed with oil. 

Speyer, W. 

Untersuchungen uber tie rise he Obstach'adlinge und ihre Bekampfung. 
Mitt. Biol. Reichsanst. 63: 78-". Ztschr. 

Pflanzenkrank. 52(2-4): 23 . 

In Poland the parasitism of t! pie aphid I . . . : . 

.1 did no- d 68 : I, since tl rasite require 






m than does the host. 

I '.- i nd irh- 

Mitt. I . R( asanst. 65: 6 fcbs. U . 

Pflanzenkrank. 4.) 

I hi d and it 

Ld in the Lower I 
winter of I I . 

\ 

^n. 

■ . 
■ >ma laiugei-uin , unlll 

i by the h<>t, 'ing, and itta< ks 



-55 - 



1941 

Wille, J. E. / (280) 

13a memoria de la estacion experimental agricola de La Molina 
correspondiente al arfo 1940. La Molina Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt., 
1940(7), 321 pp. 

The distribution of Aphelinus mali against the woolly apple 
aphid in Peru was continued. 

1942 
Anonymous (281) 

/Aphelinus mali T/ Imp. Council Agr. Res. Ann. Rpt., 1940-41 
*" (2), 190 pp. - / 

A mali has become well established in the Kulu Valley and the 
Simla Hills. 

(282) 



14a memoria de la estacion experimental agricola de La Molina 
correspondiente al ano 1941. La Molina Agr. Expt. Sta., 1941 
(6), 276 pp. 

Aphelinus mali , introduced for the control of Eriosoma 
lanigerum , has become established in Peru. 

Annand, P. N. (283) 

Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar- 
antine, 1942. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. Ann. Rpt. 
1942: 50. 

Aphelinus mali was shipped to Bolivia. 

Cherian, M. C. (284) 

Our present position with regard to the control of fruit pests. 
Madras Agr. Jour. 30(1): 14-17. 

Aphelinus mali showed 40-percent parasitism of the woolly 
apple aphid at the beginning of the season in apple orchards on 
the hills of India. 

Singh, R. N. (285) 

Control of the woolly aphis ( Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann) by 
spraying and other methods. Indian Jour. Agr. Sci. 12(4): 
588-602. 









, introduce: -ne ago into the Kumaun 

di r to offer e: •• control 

tht .•. .*• aph resence of the coccinellid. 

It has, however, : able control in th< ib. 

1943 
:, P. N. (286) 

t of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Qu . 
•ine", 1943. I'. S. Bur. Ent. ar.d Plant Quar. Ann. Rpt. 
1943: 

Aphelinus mali was shipped to Mexico. 

Sachtleben, H. (287) 

Die biologische Bekampfung und ihre praktische Bedeutung in 
Deutschland. Ztschr. f. Pflanzenkrank. 53(1-3): 86-93. 

The only known case of successful biological control of an 
insect pest in Germany by an introduced insect is that of the 
woolly apple aphid by Aphelinus mali. 

1944 
Annand, P. N . 38) 

Report of the chief of the Bureau of Ent mology and Plant 
Quarantine, 1944. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. Ann. 
14: 24-25. 

Aphelinus mali was released in Iov. 

Massee < A. 

[• .■ th< A aphid paras:' :nus ir..-.'.: W.-.'.A.). 

E ■ Mali,: _~ JJ R< . Sta. Ann, Rpt. 1943: 65-67. 

An account Of I ll Lisfa ah in foul in 

Kei • fr 24-38, to i. In ;3 

th< R giving B distr 

, Oi 

weatl . . . | 

i- . or In di 



- 57 



1944 
Michelbacher, A. E., and Borden, A. D. (290) 

Two introduced insects attacking the woolly apple aphid in 
California. Jour. Econ. Ent. 37(5): 715-717. 

Reports the introduction of Aphelinus mali into the Watsonville 
district of California from material supplied by E. J. Newcomer, 
of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Yakima, Wash. 

1945 
Massee, A. M. (291) 

Overwintering of the woolly aphid parasite ( Aphelinus mali Hald.) 
in low-temperature apple stores. East Mailing ^KenfJ Res. 
Sta. Ann. Rpt. 33(1945): 142-143. 

A. mali introduced into England may die out, owing to damp 
winters, therefore tests were made to carry it over winter in 
cold or dry storage. Cold storage was successful, but dry 
storage failed. Collecting the parasite in October, keeping it 
at a constant temperature of 39° to 46° F. until the end of May, 
and then allowing it to emerge in infested orchards was satis- 
factory. 

Smith, J. Harold (292) 

Useful parasitic insects. Queensland Agr. Jour. 61(6): 340-351. 
(Biol. Abs. 20: 1, 751.) 

Aphelinus mali listed as one of the beneficial insects. 

1946 
Mason, F. R. (293) 

/Woolly aphid parasite^y Palestine Dept. Agr. and Fisheries 
" Ann. Rpt., 16 pp., March 31, 1945. 

Eriosoma lanigerum is successfully controlled by Aphelinus 
mali . 

Newcomer, E. J., Dean, F. P., and Carlson, F. W. (294) 

Effect of DDT, xanthone, and nicotine bentonite on the woolly 
apple aphid. Jour. Econ. Ent. 39: 674-676. 

Prior to .the introduction of Aphelinus mali , the woolly apple 
aphid was a serious pest; now it is relatively insignificant. The 
use of DDT, however, for codling moth control appears to 
interfere with the normal activity of the parasite, resulting in 
a serious increase in aphid population. 



- 58 



E. J. 

DD1 jents • pples on 

Murrun * . / .-. lies 5 

• . 

n mo> 
it Aphelinu! I been 

during tl • 

F. S. (296) 

Si lies of th<- physical ecology of the woe pie aphis 

( Knosor: .■:.. ■ ■: -urn ) and its .'-linus n 

"Stine, Palestine Agr. Res. Si L. B ll. 43, 20 : : ., 
Ri ■ 

A comfirehensive review of investigations on the bionorr. . 
of E. lanigerum and its introc 11 on apple 

at L ■ fl :n, ne. n, in 1937-40. 

Borg, A. (2 

Om blodlusens overvintring 194G-J7. ^Sweden Vextskyddsi 
1947(6): 81-85. 

Discusses the effect of low winter temperatures of 19 
in Swed woolly ap] and its parasr 

Childs, Lei >8) 

Progress report on the use of DDT as a codling moth S] 
Vt ash. SI •• n rt. Ass< . Pi ■■■• . 42: 

D; p p 1 e aphid to \ 

n Lntn I ed the * "•id 

pa: < :;seast 'US 

th 

Inti '■ ftphelinus mali >ntroll< 

well. DD1 , wh rgely i as 

ttoo\ 

\K . ^9) 

chard, v. 

Biol. Aba, .) 

i ■ ■ 



59 - 



1947 
Kemp, K. H. (300) 

Codling moth control. So. Austral. Dept. Agr. Jour. 51(1,4,5): 
6-9, 184-186, 220-236, 238. 

The woolly apple aphid is normally parasitized by Aphelinus 
mali. 

Miller, L. W. (301) 

The biological control of insect pests in Tasmania. Tasmanian 
Jour. Agr. 18: 117-119. 

Aphelinus mali is well established in all apple-growing sections 
of Tasmania, and in some it is so effective that spraying is un- 
necessary. 

Newcomer, E. J. (302) 

Growers' results with DDT for codling moth control. Wash. 
State Hort. Assoc. Proc, 42: 55-59. 

The woolly apple aphid was more common in orchards 
sprayed with DDT than in orchards not sprayed with it because 
of the destruction of Aphelinus mali by the DDT. In orchards 
sprayed two or more times with it, an average of only 9 per- 
cent of the aphids were parasitized, as compared with nearly 
70 percent where lead arsenate or cryolite was used. 

O'Neill, W. J., and Lipovsky, L. J. (303) 

The results of experiments with DDT on apples at Wenatchee. 
Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 42: 61-65. 

When DDT is used, the woolly apple aphid may increase and 
become a major pest, as it was before Aphelinus was estab- 
lished. 

Steiner, L. F. , Summerland, S. A., McAllister, H. J., and 
Fahey, J. E. (304) 

DDT for control of codling moth in the Middle West. Indiana 
Hort. Soc. Trans. (1946) 86: 1-13; Colo. Hort. Soc. Trans. 
1946: 113-133. 

In the Vincennes area, in all tests since 1943, DDT resulted 
in almost complete control of this pest, despite the presence of 
numerous colonies on adjacent trees sprayed with lead arsenate. 
However, in the orchards south of Vincennes, in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, minor outbreaks frequently occurred where DDT 









• During thi .snoaphids 

had almost 
annihilated aerial colonies of the woolly apple aphid 
in th. | 8 , f y *"' 1U 

, M. A. 

coolly apple aphid parasite (Aphelinus mail). Jour 
E on. Ent, • : 934. 

rds where DDT was used to control the codling moth 
the woolly ip hid parasite was unable to maintain its out- ' 

standing control of the aphid, and it wrill \. probably be 

•essary to substitute spraying for biological control. 

1948 
Bevienn, P. 

ntesygdomme i Danmark 1945-46. Tidsskr. for Plante 
51:373--: 2:236-292. /Also in Aars, . P ] .., ■ 

Forsog. 62-6377 ' 

Reports the spread of both Kriosoi. rum and its 

site on apple in Denmark. ' 

hopp, V. C. 

L^ r ge-S • control problems. S> : 143-145, 169. 

W pple aphid build-: DDT is used is asso. 

W1 " m of the aphid's enemies, 

site Aphelinus mali on apple in D rk. 

A - W « • , K. 

Codlii thconl 

Jour. 13-146, 

Aphelinus n .th ,j. 
in small ii. 



(306) 



(307) 



(308) 



-61 



1948 



Wason, E. J., and Lloyd, N. C. (309) 

Insect pests. DDT and codling moth control. Agr. Gaz. N. S. 
Wales 59: 538-540. 

Applications of DDT after mid-December are undesirable if 
the woolly apple aphid is present, because Aphelinus mali does 
not become active until after late in December, and early use 
of DDT allows the parasite to build up to insure effective woolly 
apple aphid control in the fall. Recommends saving prunings 
from several parasitized aphid-infested trees when dormant 
oil sprays are to be applied. 

1950 
Newcomer, E. J. (310) 

Orchard insects of the Pacific Northwest and their control. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Cir. 270: 17, 18, and 55. Revised. 

Substantially the same as reference 275. 



■fr U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : O — 1953 



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